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Comparative Analysis of MSC-Derived Exosomes Depending on Cell Culture Media for Regenerative Bioactivity
In order to produce and isolate the exosome derived from the cell of interests, a serum free environment (starvation) has been essential for excluding the unknown effect from serum-derived exosomes. Recently, serum-free culture media have been developed as a substitute for serum supplemented media so that MSC proliferates with maintaining the original characteristics of the cells in a serum free condition. Due to the different properties of the exosomes representing the states and characteristics of the origin cells, a study is needed to compare the properties of the cell-derived
exosomes according to the cell culture media.
To compare the cell culture condition on exosomes, human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) were cultured with two different media, serum containing media, 10% FBS supplemented DMEM (NM) and serum-free chemically defined media, CellCorTM CD MSC (CDM). To remove FBS-derived exosomes from UCMSC cultured with NM, the medium was replaced with FBS-free DMEM for starvation during exosome isolation. The production yield and expression levels of angiogenic and pro-inflammatory factors were compared. And, the subpopulations of exosome were classified depending on the surface properties and loaded cytokines. Finally, the wound healing and angiogenic effects have been evaluated using in vitro assays.
The UCMSC-derived exosomes under two different cell culture media could be classified into subpopulations according to the surface composition and loaded cytokines. Especially, exosome derived from UCMSC cultured with CDM showed higher expression levels of cytokines related to
regenerative bioactivities which resulted in enhanced wound healing and angiogenesis.
CDM has the advantages to maintain cell proliferation even during the period of exosome isolations and eliminate unknown side effects caused by serum derived exosomes. Additionally, exosomes derived from UCMSC cultured with CDM show better wound healing and angiogenic effects due to a lot of regeneration-related cytokines and less pro-inflammatory cytokines compared to with NM.